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Glossary of Excel Functions




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How to Use This Guide 

Database Management and List Management Functions

Date and Time Functions

DDE and External Data Functions

Engineering Functions

Financial Functions

Information Functions

Logical Functions

Lookup and Reference Functions

Math and Trigonometry Functions

Statistical Functions

Text Functions

How to Use This Guide

This glossary provides a quick reference summary of the functions available in Excel 2000 and later. For further information and complete details on using the functions, please refer to the Excel Help feature.

Database Management and List Management Functions

General Syntax

In the following sections, a separate syntax line is included for each database or list function that doesn't conform to the following general syntax:

=Dfunction(database,field,criteria)

  • The database argument refers to the range encompassing the list or database.

  • The field argument refers to a particular column in the list. If you omit the field argument, the function operates on the entire list. You can refer to the column number within the list, the name of the column heading (in quotes), or a cell reference referring to either the label or the column number.

  • The criteria argument specifies the basis on which you want the function to select particular cells. The criteria includes a duplicate list of column headings from the list, with words, phrases, numeric values, or formulas listed underneath those headings.

DAVERAGE

Indicates the average of the values that meet the specified criteria.

DCOUNT

Counts the number of cells that contain numbers that meet the specified criteria.

DCOUNTA

Counts nonblank cells containing numbers or text that meet the specified criteria.

DGET

Returns a single value that meets the specified criteria. If duplicates are found, DGET returns #NUM.

DMAX

Extracts the highest value that meets the specified criteria.

DMIN

Extracts the lowest value that meets the specified criteria.

DPRODUCT

Returns the product of multiplying the values that meet the specified criteria.

DSTDEV

Returns the calculation of the standard deviation of a population, based on the sum of the whole population.

DSUM

Returns the total of the values that meet the specified criteria.

DVAR

Estimates the variance of a sample population, based on the values that meet the specified criteria.

DVARP

Returns the calculation of the variance of an entire population, based on the values that meet the specified criteria.

GETPIVOTDATA

Returns a value of data stored in a PivotTable. The syntax is as follows:

=GETPIVOTDATA(PivotTable,name)

 

Date and Time Functions



DATE

Returns the DATEVALUE serial number.

=DATE(year,month,day)

DATEVALUE

Converts date text to a DATEVALUE serial number.

=DATEVALUE(date_text)

DAY

Returns the corresponding day of the month serial number, from 1 to 31.

=DAY(serial_number)

DAYS360

Returns the number of days between dates that you specify, based on a 360-day year (twelve 30 day months).

=DAYS360(start_date,end_date)

EDATE

Returns the value or serial number of the date specified by you and the number of months before or after the specified date. Use EDATE to calculate the maturity date or date due that falls on the same day of the month as the date of issue.

=EDATE(start_date,months)

EOMONTH

Returns the serial number for the last day of the month (as specified by months) before or after start_date. Used to calculate maturity dates or dates due that fall on the last day of the month.

=EOMonth(start_date,months)

HOUR

Returns the hour as a serial number integer between 0 (12:00 A.M.) and 23 (11:00 P.M.).

=HOUR(serial_number)

MINUTE

Returns the serial number integer from 0 to 59 that corresponds to the minute.

=MINUTE(serial_number)

MONTH

Returns the corresponding serial number of the month between 1 and 12.

=MONTH(serial_number)

NETWORKDAYS

Returns the number of working days between two dates. Excludes weekends and specified holidays.

=NETWORKDAYS(start_date,end_date,holidays)

NOW

Returns the current date and time in the form of a serial number. When entered in a cell, Excel formats the number as a date and time. There are no arguments for this function.

=NOW()

SECOND

Returns the corresponding serial number of seconds as an integer between 0 and 59.

=SECOND(serial_number)

TIME

Returns the corresponding serial number of time as a decimal between 0 and 0.99999999.

=TIME(hour,minute,second)

TIMEVALUE

Returns the serial number represented by text as time.

=TIMEVALUE(time_text)

TODAY

Returns the current date as a serial number. When entered in a cell, Excel formats the number as a date. There are no arguments for this function.

=TODAY()

WEEKDAY

Returns the corresponding day of the week (from 1 to 7) as a serial number.

=WEEKDAY(serial_number,return_type)

WORKDAY

Returns a number representing the date that is the number of days (specified by days) before or after start_date. You can exclude dates with the holidays argument.

=WORKDAY(start_date,days,holidays).

YEAR

Returns the corresponding year as a serial number in the form of an integer from 19009999.

=YEAR(serial_number)

YEARFRAC

Returns the calculated fraction of the year represented by whole numbers between two dates.

=YEARFRAC(start_date,end_date,basis)

 

DDE and External Data Functions

CALL

Calls up the procedure in a dynamic link library or code resource.

Syntax 1, with register:

=CALL(register_ID,argument1,...)

Syntax 2, used alone:

=CALL(module_text,procedure,type_text,argument1,...)

REGISTER.ID

Supplies the registered ID of the dynamic link library or code resource.

=REGISTER.ID(module_text,procedure,type_text)

SQL.REQUEST

Runs a query from a worksheet and connects an external data source.

=SQL.REQUEST(connection_string,output_ref,driver_prompt,query_text,col_names_logical)

 

Engineering Functions

NOTE

You must have the Analysis ToolPak installed and enabled to use (see) these functions.

BESSELI

Returns the Bessel function in modified form for imaginary arguments.

=BESSELI(x,n)

BESSELJ

Returns the actual Bessel function, where x is the value at which to evaluate the function, and n is the order of the Bessel function.

=BESSELJ(x,n)

BESSELK

Returns the Bessel function in modified form for imaginary arguments.

=BESSELK(x,n)

BESSELY

Returns the Bessel function, also known as the Weber or Neumann function, where x is the value at which to evaluate the function, and n is the order of the function.

=BESSELY(x,n)

BIN2DEC

Converts a binary number to decimal form.

=BIN2DEC(number)

BIN2HEX

Converts a binary number to hexadecimal.

=BIN2HEX(number,places)

BIN2OCT

Converts a binary number to octal.

=BIN2OCT(number,places)

COMPLEX

Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number of the form x+yi or x+yj.

=COMPLEX(real_num,I_num,suffix)

CONVERT

Converts from one measurement system to another.

=CONVERT(number,from_unit,to_unit)

DEC2BIN

Converts decimal numbers to binary.

=DEC2BIN(number,places)

DEC2HEX

Converts decimal numbers to hexadecimal.

=DEC2HEX(number,places)

DEC2OCT

Converts decimal numbers to octal.

=DEC2OCT(number,places)

DELTA

Tests whether numbers or values are equal.

=DELTA(number1,number2)

ERF

Returns the integrated error function between lower_limit and upper_limit.

=ERF(lower_limit,upper_limit)

ERFC

Returns a complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity, where x is the lower bound for integrating ERF.

=ERF(x)

GESTEP

Returns 1 if number is greater than or equal to a specified step or threshold, otherwise returns 0.

=GESTEP(number,step)

HEX2BIN

Converts hexadecimal numbers to binary.

=HEX2BIN(number,places)

HEX2DEC

Converts hexadecimal numbers to decimal.

=HEX2DEC(number)

HEX2OCT

Converts hexadecimal numbers to octal.

=HEX2OCT(number)

IMABS

Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format. The formula takes the square root of (x2+y2).

=IMABS(inumber)

IMAGINARY

Returns the coefficient of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMAGINARY(inumber)

IMARGUMENT

Returns the theta argument and angle expressed in radians.

=IMARGUMENT(inumber)

IMCONJUGATE

Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format.

=IMCONJUGATE(inumber)

IMCOS

Returns the cosine of a complex number x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMCOS(numbers)

IMDIV

Returns the quotient of complex numbers x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMDIV(number1,number2)

IMEXP

Returns the exponential of complex numbers x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMEXP(inumber)

IMLN

Returns the natural logarithm of complex numbers x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMLN(inumber)

IMLOG10

Returns the common logarithm (base 10) of complex numbers x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMLOG10(inumber)

IMLOG2

Returns the base 2 logarithm of complex numbers in x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMLOG2(inumber)

IMPOWER

Returns a complex number raised to a power in x+yi or x+yj text format.

=IMPOWER(inumber,number)

IMPRODUCT

Returns the product from 2 to 29 in complex numbers x+yi or x+yj text format.

=IMPRODUCT(inumber1,inumber2,...)

IMREAL

Returns real coefficients of complex numbers x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMREAL(inumber)

IMSIN

Returns the sine of complex numbers x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMSIN(inumber)

IMSQRT

Returns the square root of complex numbers x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMSQRT(inumber)

IMSUB

Returns the difference of two complex numbers x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMSUB(inumber1,inumber2)

IMSUM

Returns the sum of two complex numbers x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMSUM(inumber1,inumber2,...)

OCT2BIN

Converts an octal number to binary.

=OCT2BIN(number,places)

OCT2DEC

Converts an octal number to decimal.

=OCT2DEC(number)

OCT2HEX

Converts an octal number to hexadecimal.

=OCT2HEX(number,places)

SQRTPI

Returns the square root of a positive number multiplied by Pi. This value cannot be less than zero. (Also found under "Math and Trigonometry Functions.")

=SQRTPI(number*pi)

 

Financial Functions

ACCRINT

Returns accrued interest for security that pays periodic interest.

=ACCRINT(issue,first_interest,settlement,rate,par,frequency,basis)

ACCRINTM

Returns accrued interest for security that pays interest at maturity.

=ACCRINTM(issue,maturity,rate,par,basis)

AMORDEGRC

Returns appreciation for each accounting period.

=AMORDEGRC(cost,date_purchased,first_period,salvage,period,rate,basis)

AMORLINC

Returns depreciation for each accounting period.

=AMORLINC(cost,date_purchased,first_period,salvage,period,rate,basis)

COUPDAYBS

Returns the number of days from start date of the coupon period to the settlement.

=COUPDAYBS(settlement,maturity,frequency,basis)

COUPDAYS

Returns the number of days in the coupon period that includes the settlement date.

=COUPDAYS(settlement,maturity,frequency,basis)

COUPDAYSNC

Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date.

=COUPDAYSNC(settlement,maturity,frequency,basis)

COUPNCD

Returns the number of the next coupon date after the settlement date.

=COUPNCD(settlement,maturity,frequency,basis)

COUPNUM

Returns the total number of coupons payable between the settlement and maturity date, rounded up to the nearest whole coupon.

=COUPNUM(settlement,maturity,frequency,basis)

COUPPCD

Returns the number of the previous coupon date before the settlement date.

=COUPPCD(settlement,maturity,frequency,basis)

CUMIPMT

Returns the cumulative interest on a loan between start and stop dates.

=CUMIPMT(rate,nper,pv,start_period,end_period,type)

CUMPRINC

Returns the cumulative principal amount between start and stop dates.

=CUMPRINC(rate,nper,pv,start_period,end_period,type)

DB

Returns the asset depreciation for a period using the fixed declining balance method.

=DB(cost,salvage,life,period,month)

DDB

Returns the asset depreciation for a specified period using the double-declining balance method, or another method you specify.

=DDB(cost,salvage,life,period,factor)

DISC

Returns the security discount rate.

=DISC(settlement,maturity,pr,redemption,basis)

DOLLARDE

Converts a fraction dollar price into a decimal dollar price.

=DOLLARDE(fractional_dollar,fraction)

DOLLARFR

Converts a decimal dollar price into a fraction dollar price.

=DOLLARFR(decimal_dollar,fraction)

DURATION

Returns the duration for an assumed par value of $100 using the Macauley method.

=DURATION(settlement,maturity,coupon,yield,frequency,basis)

EFFECT

Returns the effective interest rate annually, give the nominal annual interest rate and the number of compounding periods per year.

EFFECT(nominal_rate,npery)

FV

Returns the future value of periodic payments and a constant interest rate.

=FV(rate,nper,pmt,pv,type)

FVSCHEDULE

Returns the future value of the initial principal after applying several compound interest rates.

=FVSCHEDULE(principal,schedule)

INTRATE

Returns the interest rate of a fully invested security.

=INTRATE(settlement,maturity,investment,redemption,basis)

IPMT

Returns the interest payment for a period of time based on an investment with periodic constant payments and a constant interest rate.

=IPMT(rate,per,nper,pv,fv,type)

IRR

Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows represented by numbers in the form of values.

=IRR(values,guess)

MDURATION

Returns a modified duration of a security with an assumed par value of $100.

=MDURATION(settlement,maturity,coupon,yield,frequency,basis)

MIRR

Returns a modified internal rate of return for several periodic cash flows.

=MIRR(values,finance_rate,reinvest_rate)

NOMINAL

Returns the nominal annual interest rate given an effective rate and a number of compounding periods per year.

=NOMINAL(effective_rate,npery)

NPER

Returns the number of periods for an investment based on periodic constant payments and a constant interest rate.

=NPER(rate,pmt,pv,fv,type)

NPV

Calculates the net present value of an investment with the discount rate and several future payments and income.

=NPV(rate,value1,value2,...)

ODDFPRICE

Returns the value of a security based on a per $100 face value and an odd first period.

=ODDFPRICE(settlement,maturity,issue,first_coupon,rate,yield,redemption,frequency,basis)

ODDFYIELD

Returns the security yield with an odd first period.

=ODDFYIELD(settlement,maturity,issue,first_coupon,rate,pr,redemption,frequency,basis)

ODDLPRICE

Returns the per $100 face value of a security having an odd last coupon period.

=ODDLPRICE(settlement,maturity,last_interest,rate,yield,redemption,frequency,basis)

ODDLYIELD

Returns the security yield that has an odd last period.

=ODDLYIELD(settlement,maturity,last_interest,rate,pr,redemption,frequency,basis)

PMT

Calculates the loan payment for a loan based on constant payments and constant interest rates.

=PMT(rate,nper,pv,fv,type)

PPMT

Returns the principal payment for a specific period of an investment based on periodic constant payments and a constant interest rate.

=PPMT(rate,per,nper,pv,fv,type)

PRICE

Returns the value of a security based on price per $100 face value and periodic payments.

=PRICE(settlement,maturity,rate,yield,redemption,frequency,basis)

PRICEDISC

Returns the value of a discounted security based on a price per $100 face value.

=PRICEDISC(settlement,maturity,discount,redemption,basis)

PRICEMAT

Returns the value of a security that pays interest at maturity and price per $100 face value.

=PRICEMAT(settlement,maturity,issue,rate,yield,basis)

PV

Based on an investment, returns the present value.

=PV(rate,nper,pmt,fv,type)

RATE

Returns per period the interest of an annuity.

=RATE(nper,pmt,pv,fv,type,guess)

RECEIVED

Based on a fully invested security, returns the amount received at maturity.

=RECEIVED(settlement,maturity,investment,discount,basis)

SLN

Based on one period, returns the straight-line depreciation on an asset.

=SLN(cost,salvage,life)

SYD

Based on a specified period, returns the sum-of-years-digits depreciation of an asset.

=SYD(cost,salvage,life,per)

TBILLEQ

For a treasury bill, returns the bond equivalent yield.

=TBILLEQ(settlement,maturity,discount)

TBILLPRICE

For a treasury bill, returns the price per $100 face value.

=TBILLPRICE(settlement,maturity,discount)

TBILLYIELD

For a treasury bill, returns the yield.

=TBILLYIELD(settlement,maturity,pr)

VDB

For a period you specify, returns the depreciation of an asset.

=VDB(cost,salvage,life,start_period,end_period,factor,no_switch)

XIRR

For a schedule of cash flows that are not necessarily periodic, returns the internal rate of return.

=XIRR(values,dates,guess)

XNPV

For a schedule of cash flows that are not necessarily periodic, returns the present value.

=XNPV(rate,values,dates)

YIELD

Based on a yield that pays periodic interest, returns the yield of the security.

=YIELD(settlement,maturity,rate,pr,redemption,frequency,basis)

YIELDDISC

For a discounted security, returns the annual yield.

=YIELDDISC(settlement,maturity,pr,redemption,basis)

YIELDMAT

Based on a security that pays interest at maturity, returns the annual yield.

=YIELDMAT(settlement,maturity,issue,rate,pr,basis)

 

Information Functions

CELL

Returns information about a cell's location, formatting, or contents in the upper-left cell in a reference.

=CELL(info_type,reference)

COUNTBLANK

Counts the number of empty cells in a specified range.

=COUNTBLANK(range)

ERROR.TYPE

Returns the corresponding number value associated with an error type in Microsoft Excel. Returns #N/A if no error exists.

=ERROR.TYPE(error_val)

INFO

Returns operating environment information.

=INFO(type_text)

ISBLANK

Returns TRUE if value refers to an empty cell.

=ISBLANK(value)

ISERR

Returns TRUE if value refers to any error value in Microsoft Excel except #NA.

=ISERR(value)

ISERROR

Returns TRUE if value refers to any error value in Microsoft Excel.

=ISERROR(value)

ISEVEN

Returns TRUE or FALSE if the number is even or odd, TRUE being even and FALSE being odd.

=ISEVEN(number)

ISLOGICAL

Returns TRUE if the value is logical.

=ISLOGICAL(value)

ISNA

Returns TRUE if value is associated with the error type #NA.

=ISNA(value)

ISNONTEXT

Returns TRUE if value refers to any item that isn't text. Returns TRUE if value refers to a blank cell.

=ISNONTEXT(value)

ISNUMBER

Returns TRUE if value refers to a number.

=ISNUMBER(value)

ISODD

Returns TRUE if number is odd and FALSE if the number is even.

=ISODD(number)

ISREF

Returns TRUE if value refers to a reference.

=ISREF(value)

ISTEXT

Returns TRUE if value refers to text.

=ISTEXT(value)

N

Returns value converted to a number.

=N(value)

NA

Returns the error value associated with #NA.

=NA()

TYPE

Returns the type of value, for example, number = 1, text = 2, logical value = 4, error value = 16, and array = 64. Use TYPE when the behavior of another function depends on the type of value in a particular cell.

=TYPE(value)

 

Logical Functions

AND

Returns TRUE if all arguments in the formula are true, and FALSE if any one argument is false.

=AND(logical1,logical2,...)

FALSE

Returns the value FALSE. There are no arguments associated with this function.

=FALSE()

IF

Returns a value if one condition is true, and returns another value if the condition is false.

=IF(logical_test,value_if_true,value_if_false)

NOT

Returns the reverse value of its arguments.

=NOT(logical)

OR

Returns TRUE if any one argument is true. Returns FALSE if all arguments are false.

=OR(logical1,logical2,...)

TRUE

Returns the value TRUE. There are no arguments associated with this function.

=TRUE()

 

Lookup and Reference Functions

ADDRESS

Given specified row and column numbers, creates a cell address as text.

=ADDRESS(row_num,column_num,abs_num,A1,sheet_text)

AREAS

Returns the number of areas in reference.

=AREAS(reference)

CHOOSE

Returns the index number from a list of arguments.

=CHOOSE(index_num,value1,value2,...)

COLUMN

Based on a given reference, returns the column number.

=COLUMN(reference)

COLUMNS

Based on an array or reference, returns the number of columns.

=COLUMNS(array)

HLOOKUP

Searches for a specified value in an array or tables, based on the value found in the first row.

=HLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,row_index_number,range_lookup)

HYPERLINK

Creates a shortcut or jump that switches to another location within the workbook, or opens a document stored on a local drive, a network server, an intranet, or the Internet.

=HYPERLINK(link_location,cell_contents)

INDEX (Array Form)

Based on a table or array, returns the value of an element selected by the row number and column letter indexes.

=INDEX(array,row_num,column_num)

INDEX (Reference Form)

Based on the intersection of a particular row and column, returns the reference of the cell.

=INDEX(reference,row_num,column_num,area_num)

INDIRECT

Returns the reference based on a text string.

=INDIRECT(ref_text,A1)

LOOKUP (Vector Form)

Based on a range of one row or one column, returns the value from the same position in a second row or column.

=LOOKUP(lookup_value,lookup_vector,result_vector)

LOOKUP (Array Form)

Looks in the first row or column of an array, and returns the specified value from the same position in the last row or column of the array.

=LOOKUP(lookup_value,array)

MATCH

Returns the position of an item in an array that matches a specified value and order.

=MATCH(lookup_value,lookup_array,match_type)

OFFSET

Returns a reference to a range that is a specific number of rows and columns from a cell or range of cells.

=OFFSET(reference,rows,columns,height,width)

ROW

Based on a reference, returns the row number.

=ROW(reference)

ROWS

Based on a reference or array, returns the number of rows.

=ROWS(array)

TRANSPOSE

Returns a horizontal range of cells as vertical or vice versa.

=TRANSPOSE(array)

VLOOKUP

Looks for a value in the left most column of a table and returns a value from the column number you specify.

=VLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,column_index_num,range_lookup)

 

Math and Trigonometry Functions

ABS

Returns the absolute value of number.

=ABS(number)

ACOS

Returns the arcosine of number. The arccosine is the angle whose cosine is number.

=ACOS(number)

ACOSH

Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of number.

=ACOSH(number)

ASIN

Returns the arcsine of number.

=ASIN(number)

ASINH

Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of number.

=ASINH(number)

ATAN

Returns the arctangent of number.

=ATAN(number)

ATAN2

Returns the arctangent of the specified x and y coordinates.

=ATAN2(x_num,y_num)

ATANH

Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number.

=ATANH(number)

CEILING

Returns number rounded up to the nearest integer, or to the nearest multiple of significance (for example, to the nearest nickel).

=CEILING(number,significance)

COMBIN

Returns the number of combinations for a given number of items.

=COMBIN(number,number_chosen)

COS

Returns the cosine of a given angle.

=COS(number)

COSH

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of number.

=COSH(number)

COUNTIF

Counts the number of cells in a specified range that meet the criteria you specify.

=COUNTIF(range,criteria)

DEGREES

Converts radians into degrees.

=DEGREES(angle)

EVEN

Returns number rounded up to the nearest integer.

=EVEN(number)

EXP

Returns e raised to the power of number.

=EXP(number)

FACT

Returns the factorial of number.

=FACT(number)

FACTDOUBLE

Returns the double factorial of number.

=FACTDOUBLE(number)

FLOOR

Rounds number down, toward zero, to the nearest multiple of significance.

=FLOOR(number,significance)

GCD

Returns the greatest common divisor of two or more integers.

=GCD(number1,number2,...)

INT

Rounds number down to the nearest integer.

=INT(number)

LCM

Returns the least common multiple of integers.

=LCM(number1,number2,...)

LN

Returns the natural logarithm of a number.

=LN(number)

LOG

Returns the logarithm of a number to the base you specify.

=LOG(number,base)

LOG10

Returns the base 10 logarithm of a number.

=LOG10(number)

MDETERM

Returns the matrix determinant of an array.

=MDETERM(array)

MINVERSE

Returns the inverse matrix for the matrix stored in an array.

=MINVERSE(array)

MMULT

Returns the matrix product of two arrays.

=MMULT(array1,array2)

MOD

Returns the remainder after number is divided by divisor.

=MOD(number,divisor)

MROUND

Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple.

=MROUND(number,multiple)

MULTINOMIAL

Returns the ratio of the factorial of a sum of values to the product of factorials.

=MULTINOMIAL(number1,number2,...)

ODD

Returns number rounded to the nearest odd integer.

=ODD(number)

PI

Returns the number 3.14159265358979, the mathematical constant Pi, accurate to 15 digits. There are no arguments associated with this function.

=PI()

POWER

Returns the result of a number raised to a power.

=POWER(number,power)

PRODUCT

Multiplies all the numbers given as arguments and returns the product.

=PRODUCT(number1,number2,...)

QUOTIENT

Returns the integer portion of a division. Use this function to discard the remainder of a division.

=QUOTIENT(numerator,denominator)

RADIANS

Converts degrees to radians.

=RADIANS(angle)

RAND

Returns an evenly distributed number greater than or equal to 0 and less than 1. There are no arguments associated with this function.

=RAND()

RANDBETWEEN

Returns a random number between the numbers you specify.

=RANDBETWEEN(bottom,top)

ROMAN

Converts an Arabic numeral to Roman, as text.

=ROMAN(number,form)

ROUND

Rounds a number to a specified number of digits.

=ROUND(number,num_digits)

ROUNDDOWN

Rounds a number down toward 0.

=ROUNDDOWN(number,num_digits)

ROUNDUP

Rounds a number up away from 0.

=ROUNDUP(number,num_digits)

SERIESSUM

Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula.

=SERIESSUM(x,n,m,coefficients)

SIGN

Determines the sign (positive or negative) of number.

=SIGN(number)

SIN

Returns the sine of the given angle.

=SIN(number)

SINH

Returns the hyperbolic sine of number.

=SINH(number)

SQRT

Returns the positive square root of number.

=SQRT(number)

SQRTPI

Returns the square root of (number*pi).

=SQRTPI(number)

SUBTOTAL

Returns a subtotal from a list or database.

=SUBTOTAL(function_num,ref1,ref2,...)

SUM

Adds the numbers in a range of cells.

=Sum(number1,number2,...)

SUMIF

Adds the cells specified by criteria.

=SUMIF(range,criteria,sum_range)

SUMPRODUCT

Multiplies corresponding components in the given array, and returns the sum of those products.

=SUMPRODUCT(array1,array2,array3,...)

SUMSQ

Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments.

=SUMSQ(number1,number2,...)

SUMX2MY2

Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays.

=SUMX2MY2(array_x,array_y)

SUMX2PY2

Returns the sum of the sum of squares in corresponding values in two arrays.

=SUMX2PY2(array_x,array_y)

SUMXMY2

Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays.

=SUMXMY2(array_x,array_y)

TAN

Returns the tangent of the given angle.

=TAN(number)

TANH

Returns the hyperbolic tangent of number.

=TANH(number)

TRUNC

Truncates number to an integer, removing the fractional part of the number. Note that this function does not round number.

=TRUNC(number,num_digits)

 

Statistical Functions

AVEDEV

Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean.

=AVEDEV(number1,number2,...)

AVERAGE

Returns the average of the arguments.

=AVERAGE(number1,number2,...)

AVERAGEA

Calculates the average of the values in the list of arguments.

=AVERAGEA(value1,value2,...)

BETADIST

Returns the cumulative beta probability density function.

=BETADIST(x,alpha,beta,A,B)

BETAINV

Returns the inverse of the cumulative beta probability density function.

=BETAINV(probability,alpha,beta,A,B)

BINOMDIST

Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability.

=BINOMDIST(number_s,trials,probability_s,cumulative)

CHIDIST

Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.

=CHIDIST(x,degrees_freedom)

CHINV

Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.

=CHINV(probability,degrees_freedom)

CHITEST

Returns the test for independence.

=CHITEST(actual_range,expected_range)

CONFIDENCE

Returns the confidence interval - the range on either side of a sample mean - for the population mean.

=CONFIDENCE(alpha,standard_dev,size)

CORREL

Returns the correlation coefficient of array1 and array2 cell ranges.

=CORREL(array1,array2)

COUNT

Counts the number of cells that contain numbers within the list of arguments.

=COUNT(value1,value2,...)

COUNTA

Counts the number of cells that are not empty within the list of arguments.

=COUNTA(value1,value2,...)

COVAR

Returns covariance, the average of the products of deviations for each data point pair.

=COVAR(array1,array2)

CRITBINOM

Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is greater than or equal to a criterion value.

=CRITBINOM(trials,probability_s,alpha)

DEVSQ

Returns the sum of squares of deviations of data points from their sample mean.

=DEVSQ(number1,number2,...)

EXPONDIST

Returns the exponential distribution.

=EXPONDIST(x,lambda,cumulative)

FDIST

Returns the F probability distribution.

=FDIST(x,degrees_freedom1,degrees_freedom2)

FINV

Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution.

=FINV(probability,degrees_freedom1,degrees_freedom2)

FISHER

Returns the Fisher transformation at x.

=FISHER(x)

FISHERINV

Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation.

=FISHERINV(y)

FORECAST

Calculates or predicts a future value by using existing values.

=FORECAST(x,known_y's,known_x's)

FREQUENCY

Calculates how often values occur within a range of values, and then returns a vertical array of numbers. This function returns an array of values and therefore must be entered as an array formula (using Ctrl+Shift+Enter).

=FREQUENCY(data_array,bins_array)

FTEST

Returns the result of an Ftest.

=FTEST(array1,array2)

GAMMADIST

Returns the gamma distribution.

=GAMMADIST(x,alpha,beta,cumulative)

GAMMAINV

Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution.

=GAMMAINV(probability,alpha,beta)

GAMMALN

Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function.

=GAMMALN(x)

GEOMEAN

Returns the geometric mean of an array or range of positive data.

=GEOMEAN(number1,number2,...)

GROWTH

Calculates predicted exponential growth by using existing data.

=GROWTH(known_y's,known_x's,new_x's,const)

HARMEAN

Returns the harmonic mean of a data set.

=HARMEAN(number1,number2,...)

HYPGEOMDIST

Returns the hypergeometric distribution.

=HYPERGEOMDIST(sample_s,number_sample,population_s,number_population)

INTERCEPT

Calculates the point at which a line will intersect the y-axis by using existing x-values and y-values.

=INTERCEPT(known_y's,known_x's)

KURT

Returns the Kurtosis of a data set.

=KURT(number1,number2,...)

LARGE

Returns the k-th largest value in a data set.

=LARGE(array,k)

LINEST

Calculates the statistics for a line by using the "least squares" method to calculate a straight line that best fits your data, and returns an array that describes the line.

=LINEST(known_y's,known_x's,const,stats)

LOGEST

In regression analysis, calculates an exponential curve that fits your data and returns an array of values that describes the curve.

=LOGEST(known_y's,known_x's,const,stats)

LOGINV

Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function of x, wherein (x) is normally distributed with parameters mean and standard_dev.

=LOGINV(probability,mean,standard_dev)

LOGNORMDIST

Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution of x, wherein (x) is normally distributed with parameters mean and standard_dev.

=LOGNORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev)

MAX

Returns the largest value in a set of values.

=MAX(number1,number2,...)

MAXA

Returns the largest value in a list of arguments.

=MAXA(value1,value2,...)

MEDIAN

Returns the median of a given set numbers.

=MEDIAN(number1,number2,...)

MIN

Returns the smallest number in a set of values. Nonnumeric values are ignored.

=MIN(number1,number2,...)

MINA

Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments including text and logical values such as "No Grade", TRUE, and FALSE. TRUE evaluates to 1. All other nonnumeric values evaluate to 0.

=MINA(value1,value2,...)

MODE

Returns the most frequently occurring, or repetitive, value in an array or range of data.

=MODE(number1,number2,...)

NEGBINOMDIST

Returns the negative binomial distribution.

=NEGBINOMDIST(number_f,number_s,probability_s)

NORMDIST

Returns the normal cumulative distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation.

=NORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev,cumulative)

NORMINV

Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation.

=NORMINV(probability,mean,standard_dev)

NORMSDIST

Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution function.

=NORMSDIST(z)

NORMSINV

Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution.

=NORMSINV(probability)

PEARSON

Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, r, a dimensionless index ranges from -1.0 to 1.0 inclusive and reflects the extent of a linear relationship between two data sets.

=PEARSON(array1,array2)

PERCENTILE

Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range.

=PERCENTILE(array,k)

PERCENTRANK

Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage of the data set.

=PERCENTRANK(array,x,significance)

PERMUT

Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects that can be selected from number objects.

=PERMUT(number,number_chosen)

POISSON

Returns the Poisson distribution.

=POISSON(x,mean,cumulative)

PROB

Returns the probability that values in a range are between two specified limits.

=PROB(x_range,prob_range,lower_limit,upper_limit)

QUARTILE

Returns the quartile of a data set.

=QUARTILE(array,quart)

RANK

Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers.

=RANK(number,ref,order)

RSQ

Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient through data points in known_y's and known_x's.

=RSQ(known_y's,known_x's)

SKEW

Returns the skewness of a distribution.

=SKEW(number1,number2,...)

SLOPE

Returns the slope of the regression line through data points in known_y's and known_x's.

=SLOPE(known_y's,known_x's)

SMALL

Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set.

=SMALL(array,k)

STANDARDIZE

Returns a normalized value from a distribution characterized by mean and standard_dev.

=STANDARDIZE(x,mean,standard_dev)

STDEV

Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. Nonnumeric values are ignored.

=STDEV(number1,number2,...)

STDEVA

Estimates standard deviation based on a sample including text and logical values such as "None", TRUE, and FALSE. TRUE evaluates to 1. All other nonnumeric values evaluate to 0.

=STDEVA(value1,value2,...)

STDEVP

Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments. Nonnumeric values are ignored.

=STDEVP(number1,number2,...)

STDEVPA

Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments including text and logical values such as "None", TRUE, and FALSE. TRUE evaluates to 1. All other nonnumeric values evaluate to 0.

=STDEVPA(value1,value2,...)

STEYX

Returns the standard error of the predicted y value for each x in the regression.

=STEYX(known_y's,known_x's)

TDIST

Returns the student's t-distribution.

TDIST(x,degrees_freedom,tails)

TINV

Returns the inverse of the student's t-distribution for the specified degrees of freedom.

=TINV(probability,degrees_freedom)

TREND

Returns values along a linear trend.

=TREND(known_y's,known_x's,new_x's,const)

TRIMMEAN

Returns the mean of the interior of a data set.

=TRIMMEAN(array,percent)

TTEST

Returns the probability associated with the student's t-test.

=TTEST(array1,array2,tails,type)

VAR

Estimates variance based on a sample, with from 1 to 30 arguments.

=VAR(number1,number2,...)

VARA

Estimates variance based on a sample including text and logical values such as "None", TRUE, and FALSE. TRUE evaluates to 1. All other nonnumeric values evaluate to 0.

=VARA(value1,value2,...)

VARP

Calculates variance based on the entire population. Nonnumeric values are ignored.

=VARP(number1,number2,...)

VARPA

Calculates variance based on the entire population. including text and logical values such as "None", TRUE, and FALSE. TRUE evaluates to 1. All other nonnumeric values evaluate to 0.

=VARPA(value1,value2,...)

WEIBULL

Returns the Weibull distribution.

=WEIBULL(x,alpha,beta,cumulative)

ZTEST

Returns the two-tailed P-value of a z-test.

=ZTEST(array,x,sigma)

 

Text Functions

CHAR

Returns the character specified by a number.

=CHAR(number)

CLEAN

Removes all nonprintable characters from text.

=CLEAN(text)

CODE

Returns a numeric code from the first character in a text string.

=CODE(text)

CONCATENATE

Joins several text strings into one text string.

=CONCATENATE(text1,text2,...)

DOLLAR

Converts a number to text using Currency format, with the decimals rounded to the specified place. The format used is $#,##0.00_);($#,##0.00).

=DOLLAR(number,decimals)

EXACT

Compares two text strings and returns TRUE if they're exactly the same, and FALSE otherwise. EXACT is case sensitive.

=EXACT(text1,text2)

FIND

Finds one text string with another text string, and returns the number of the starting position of find_text, from the leftmost character of within_text. FIND is case sensitive and cannot include wildcard characters.

=FIND(find_text,within_text,start_num)

FINDB

Finds one text string with another text string, and returns the number of the starting position of find_text, from the leftmost character of within_text. FINDB is case sensitive and cannot include wildcard characters. This function is for use with double-byte characters.

=FINDB(find_text,within_text,start_num)

FIXED

Rounds a number to a specified number of decimals, formats the number in decimal format using a period and commas, and returns the result as text.

=FIXED(number,decimals,no_commas)

LEFT

Returns the first character or characters in a text string.

=LEFT(text,num_char)

LEN

Returns the number of characters in a text string.

=LEN(text)

LOWER

Converts all uppercase letters in a text string to lowercase.

=LOWER(text)

MID

Returns a specific number of characters from a text string, starting at the position you specify.

=MID(text,start_num,num_char)

PROPER

Capitalizes the first letter in a text string and any other letters in text that follow any character other than a letter.

=PROPER(text)

REPLACE

Replaces part of a text string with a different text string based on the number of characters you specify.

=REPLACE(old_text,start_num,num_chars,new_text)

REPLACEB

Replaces part of a text string with a different text string, based on the number of bytes you specify.

=REPLACEB(old_text,start_num,num_bytes,new_text)

REPT

Repeats text a given number of times.

=REPT(text,number_times)

RIGHT

Returns the last character or characters in a text string.

=RIGHT(text,num_chars)

SEARCH

Returns the number of the character at which a specific character or text string is first found, reading from left to right. SEARCH is not case sensitive and can include wildcard characters.

=SEARCH(find_text,within_text,start_num)

SEARCHB

Returns the number of the double-byte character at which a specific character or text string is first found, reading from left to right. SEARCHB is not case sensitive and can include wildcard characters.

=SEARCHB(find_text,within_text,start_num)

SUBSTITUTE

Substitutes new_text for old_text in a text string.

=SUBSTITUTE(text,old_text,new_text,instance_num)

T

Returns the text referred to by value.

=T(value)

TEXT

Converts a value to text in a specific number format.

=TEXT(value,format_text)

TRIM

Removes all spaces from text except for single spaces between words.

=TRIM(text)

UPPER

Converts text to uppercase.

=UPPER(text)

VALUE

Converts a text string that represents a number to a number.

=VALUE(text)